# MS Excel: Concatenate with & (WS, VBA)

Learn how to use the Excel **& operator** with syntax and examples.

## Description

To concatenate multiple strings into a single string in Microsoft Excel, you can use the **"&"** operator to separate the string values.

## Syntax

The syntax for the **"&" operator** is:

string1 & string2 [& string3 & string_n]

### Parameters or Arguments

*string1* to *string_n* are the string values to concatenate together.

## Applies To

The **"&" operator** can be used in the following versions of Microsoft Excel:

- Excel 2013, Excel 2011 for Mac, Excel 2010, Excel 2007, Excel 2003, Excel XP, Excel 2000

## Type of Excel Function

The **"&" operator** can be used in Microsoft Excel as the following type of function:

- Worksheet function (WS)
- VBA function (VBA)

## Example (as Worksheet Function)

Let's look at some Excel **"&" operator** examples and explore hwo you would use the **"&" operator** as a worksheet function in Microsoft Excel:

Based on the spreadsheet above, the following Excel **"&" operator** examples would return:

=A1&A2 | would return "Alphabet" |

="Tech on the "&"Net" | would return "Tech on the Net" |

=(A1&"bet soup") | would return "Alphabet soup" |

## Example (as VBA Function)

Let's look at some Excel "&" operator function examples and explore how to use the **"&" operator** in Excel VBA code:

The **"&" operator** can be used to concatenate strings in VBA code. For example:

Dim LValue As String LValue = "Alpha" & "bet"

The variable LValue would now contain the value "Alphabet".

## Frequently Asked Questions

Question:For an IF statement in Excel, I want to combine text and a value.

For example, I want to put an equation for work hours and pay. If I am paid more than I should be, I want it to read how many hours I owe my boss. But if I work more than I am paid for, I want it to read what my boss owes me (hours*Pay per Hour).

I tried the following:

=IF(A2<0,"I owe boss" abs(A2) "Hours","Boss owes me" abs(A2)*15 "dollars")

Is it possible or do I have to do it in 2 separate cells? (one for text and one for the value)

Answer: There are two ways that you can concatenate text and values. The first is by using the **& character** to concatenate:

=IF(A2<0,"I owe boss " & ABS(A2) & " Hours","Boss owes me " & ABS(A2)*15 & " dollars")

Or the second method is to use the CONCATENATE function:

=IF(A2<0,CONCATENATE("I owe boss ", ABS(A2)," Hours"), CONCATENATE("Boss owes me ", ABS(A2)*15, " dollars"))