excel functions

MS Excel: Concatenate with & (WS, VBA)

This Excel tutorial explains how to use the Excel & operator with syntax and examples.


To concatenate multiple strings into a single string in Microsoft Excel, you can use the & operator to separate the string values.


The syntax for the & operator is:

string1 & string2 [& string3 & string_n]

Parameters or Arguments

string1, string2, string3, ... string_n
The string values to concatenate together.

Applies To

The & operator can be used in the following versions of Microsoft Excel:

  • Excel 2013, Excel 2011 for Mac, Excel 2010, Excel 2007, Excel 2003, Excel XP, Excel 2000

Type of Excel Function

The & operator can be used in Microsoft Excel as the following type of function:

  • Worksheet function (WS)
  • VBA function (VBA)

Example (as Worksheet Function)

Let's look at some Excel & operator examples and explore hwo you would use the & operator as a worksheet function in Microsoft Excel:

Microsoft Excel

Based on the Excel spreadsheet above, the following & examples would return:

Result: "Alphabet"

="Tech on the "&"Net"
Result: "Tech on the Net"

=(A1&"bet soup")
Result: "Alphabet soup"

Example (as VBA Function)

Let's look at some Excel & operator function examples and explore how to use the & operator in Excel VBA code:

The & operator can be used to concatenate strings in VBA code. For example:

Dim LValue As String

LValue = "Alpha" & "bet"

The variable LValue would now contain the value "Alphabet".

Frequently Asked Questions

Question:For an IF statement in Excel, I want to combine text and a value.

For example, I want to put an equation for work hours and pay. If I am paid more than I should be, I want it to read how many hours I owe my boss. But if I work more than I am paid for, I want it to read what my boss owes me (hours*Pay per Hour).

I tried the following:

=IF(A2<0,"I owe boss" abs(A2) "Hours","Boss owes me" abs(A2)*15 "dollars")

Is it possible or do I have to do it in 2 separate cells? (one for text and one for the value)

Answer: There are two ways that you can concatenate text and values. The first is by using the & character to concatenate:

=IF(A2<0,"I owe boss " & ABS(A2) & " Hours","Boss owes me " & ABS(A2)*15 &  " dollars")

Or the second method is to use the CONCATENATE function:

=IF(A2<0,CONCATENATE("I owe boss ", ABS(A2)," Hours"), CONCATENATE("Boss owes me ", ABS(A2)*15,  " dollars"))