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MS Excel: ROMAN Function (WS)

Learn how to use the Excel ROMAN function with syntax and examples.


The Microsoft Excel ROMAN function converts a number to roman numeral.


The syntax for the Microsoft Excel ROMAN function is:

ROMAN( number, type )

Parameters or Arguments

number is the number that you wish to convert to roman numeral.

type is optional. It is the type of roman numeral that you wish to convert to. type can be any of the following values:

Value Explanation
0 Classic (default)
1 More concise
2 More concise
3 More concise
4 Simplified
TRUE Classic
FALSE Simplified

If type is omitted, the ROMAN function will assume a type of 0.


  • If a negative number is entered as the number parameter, the ROMAN function will return the #VALUE! error.
  • If a number greater than 3999 is entered as the number parameter, the ROMAN function will return the #VALUE! error.

Applies To

The ROMAN function can be used in the following versions of Microsoft Excel:

  • Excel 2013, Excel 2011 for Mac, Excel 2010, Excel 2007, Excel 2003, Excel XP, Excel 2000

Type of Excel Function

The ROMAN function can be used in Microsoft Excel as the following type of function:

  • Worksheet function (WS)

Example (as Worksheet Function)

Let's look at some Excel ROMAN function examples and explore how to use the ROMAN function as a worksheet function in Microsoft Excel:

Microsoft Excel

Based on the spreadsheet above, the following Excel ROMAN examples would return:

=ROMAN(A1) would return XLIX
=ROMAN(A2) would return L
=ROMAN(A3) would return MMIV
=ROMAN(999, 0) would return CMXCIX
=ROMAN(999, 1) would return LMVLIV
=ROMAN(999, 2) would return XMIX
=ROMAN(999, 3) would return VMIV
=ROMAN(999, 4) would return IM