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UNIX Basic commands: ls

The ls command lists all files in the directory that match the name. If name is left blank, it will list all of the files in the directory.


The syntax for the ls command is:

ls [options] [names]


Option Description
-a Displays all files.
-b Displays nonprinting characters in octal.
-c Displays files by file timestamp.
-C Displays files in a columnar format (default)
-d Displays only directories.
-f Interprets each name as a directory, not a file.
-F Flags filenames.
-g Displays the long format listing, but exclude the owner name.
-i Displays the inode for each file.
-l Displays the long format listing.
-L Displays the file or directory referenced by a symbolic link.
-m Displays the names as a comma-separated list.
-n Displays the long format listing, with GID and UID numbers.
-o Displays the long format listing, but excludes group name.
-p Displays directories with /
-q Displays all nonprinting characters as ?
-r Displays files in reverse order.
-R Displays subdirectories as well.
-t Displays newest files first. (based on timestamp)
-u Displays files by the file access time.
-x Displays files as rows across the screen.
-1 Displays each entry on a line.


ls -la

* Please note that there are many flavors of UNIX, so if in doubt, consult your man pages.